In 30 years, after Edith Cresson, Elisabeth Borne is the second woman appointed Prime Minister. 22 years after the first laws on parity in politics and a few days before the first round of elections for the legislative elections, we take stock of the place of women in politics.
22 years after the first laws on parity in politics, if men remain more numerous, women are more and more present in this environment.
In France, parity between men and women is progressing. According to INSEE figures, women represent 39% of deputies and 32% in the Senate. A slow but clear evolution compared to the figures of twenty years ago when they counted only 11% in the National Assembly and 6% in the Senate.
June 18, 2017 is a historic date. Emmanuel Macron wants to feminize the National Assembly. Out of 577 seats, 244 women are elected MPs. In Limousin, there are three: Marie-Ange Magne (LREM), Sophie Beaudouin-Hubière (LREM) in Haute-Vienne and Frédérique Meunier (LR) for Corrèze.
At the local level, they are 42% of municipal councilors against 40% in 2014. As departmental or regional councillors, they are almost half today.
It is among the mayors that the shoe pinches because they represent only 20%. In Limousin, it is a little more, 23% exactly. 46 women out of 195 mayors in Haute-Vienne. 59 women mayors out of 254 in Creuse. 65 women out of 277 in Corrèze.
Among regional presidents, less than a third are women. 5 out of 18 have a female president. At the level of the departmental councils, they only chair two out of ten, including Valérie Simonet, president of the Creuse Departmental Council since April 2, 2015.
If they are not elected, it is interesting to point out that the prefectures of the three departments of the former Limousin as well as that of New Aquitaine are exceptionally administered by women.
Parity has evolved thanks to a political will that goes back more than 25 years. In 1995, Jacques Chirac set up a Parity Observatory. In 1997, Lionel Jospin undertakes to reform the Constitution to include parity, which he will do in 1999.
The first law aimed at promoting equal access of women and men to electoral mandates and elective functions was introduced on June 6, 2000. Others followed in 2007, 2013 and 2019.
Gradually, all change the face of politics. The 2013 law is a small revolution. It establishes a binominal majority ballot for the election of departmental councilors who replace the general councillors, that is to say that in each canton a woman-man pair must present itself. Result: after the 2015 election, the presence of elected women in departmental councils increased from 13.8% to 50.1%.
The end of multiple mandates is also an explanation for this development, says Thomas Marty, doctor of political science. There is no longer a deputy mayor he explains. It was a function of notable, in particular male he adds.
Financial penalties are also a lever. They can be very expensive and some political parties lost a lot of money in 2018 for not investing enough women in the 2017 legislative elections. to respect the law.
According to the Observatory of Inequalities, parity is therefore progressing everywhere, even if certain areas such as finance, transport and regional planning remain very masculine and positions of high responsibility are still dominated by men.
Sexism in politics persists as told by three female politicians we met, Marie-Françoise Pérol-Dumont, retired politician, Marie-Ange Magne, LREM deputy for Haute-Vienne, Marie-Françoise Fournier, mayor of Guéret without a label. Reportage.
In Limousin, the trend was reversed for these legislative elections of 2022. In 2007, there were 70 men against 43 women candidates. This year, there are 32 women and 29 men according to Thomas Marty, doctor of political science.
In Creuse, the situation is exceptional. While they represent 44% of candidates at the national level, they are 73% in this department. 8 women against only 3 men are vying for the seat of the single constituency of Creuse.